• purcoral_resultat

MARINE ECOSYSTEMS RESTORATION

CORAL REEFS

 Like trees, corals are the cornerstone of their ecosystem...

Corals
 

Trees

CORALS

 

TREES

Protection and habitat for thousands of fishes, crustaceans, planktons, algae.
Habitat
Habitat for hundreds of animals (birds, batracians, reptiles, etc.), plants and fungi
Hosts crustaceans filtering the water from contaminants
Depollution
Decontaminates soils and water runoff, filtering the excess of fertilizers, chemicals, heavy metals
Coastal protection against storms, tides, tsunamis
Protection
Farms protection against extreme climatic events (hail, storms, winds, landslides, floods)
Resources : food (fishes, crustaceans), pharmaceutical, decorative, building material
Resources
Resources : human or animal feed, medicinal use, decorative, building material
Coral aquaculture for sustainable aquariums supply chains, eco-tourism
Revenue diversification
Timber, fruits, art crafts sales
At the core of traditions and spiritual traditions in some South East Asia and Polynesia regions
Spiritual / traditional
At the core of many religions and native spirituality in various world regions

 

... and like tropical forest, coral reefs host outstanding biodiversity.

CORAL REEFS

 
  • 0.2% of world surface 
  • 25% - 50% of marine species
  • 2 to 4 million species hosted in coral reefs
  • 32 of the 34 recognised animal Phyla (big families) are found on coral reefs (compared to 9 Phyla in tropical rainforests)
  • Home to the most diverse fish assemblages found on earth with over 6,000 species
 

TROPICAL FORESTS

 
  • 6% of world surface
  • 50% of terrestrial species
  • Around 2 million species found in tropical forests

 

Like for trees, the loss of corals would lead to the collapse of their ecosystems. 

STAKES

IMG_9coralIMG_8

Coral reefs suffer even greater loss rates than forests.

  • 27% of coral reefs have been lost irreversibly in the last 30 years (around 130 000 km2, i.e. the size of England).
  • 85% of coral reefs there are under direct threat of human activities.
  • 50% of the Great Barrier Reef has disappeared in the last 30 years.
  • Up to 90% of the corals have been lost in the Indian Ocean.
  • 80% of the corals in the Caribbean have been lost.
  • 60% of remaining coral reefs is threatened to disappear in the next 30 years. The average loss rate is of – 3%/year (vs. -0.3% for deforestation worldwide, -0.6% for tropical forests).
  • Scientists believe that coral may become extinct by 2100.

 

There are multiple threat to coral reefs, including:

  • Unsustainable fishing practices: dynamite, cyanide, fishing nets over corals, overfishing
  • Water chemical pollution (eutrophication, eco-toxicity of industrial, pharmaceutical, cosmetics products washed off in the water ecosystems)
  • Water sediment charge / turbidity due to increased soil erosion
  • Uncontrolled marine tourism and coastal development
  • Invasive species: e.g. crown-of-thorns starfish, lionfish in Caribbean
  • Climate change: elevated sea surface temperature, sea level rise, pH changes from ocean acidification
  • When damaged or broken, corals cannot regenerate by themselves if not attached to a fixed support

CORAL REEF RESTORATION METHODOLOGY

Community-based restoration and conservation projects can regenerate damaged coral reefs while improving the practices of the communities, and the livelihoods and the economy of the entire region.

Coral reefs restoration: « planting » corals on artificial structures

  • Creation of coral nurseries to rehabilitate collected broken corals and create new individual colonies
  • Construction of artificial structures to provide a growth platform for corals and other reef organisms
  • “Plantation” of baby corals on the structures
  • Advanced reef restoration technologies (mineral accretion by electrolysis) improving growth and survival rates and increasing the resilience to climate change and other pressures
  • Development of coral culture tables for coral aquaculture

 

Conservation activities to increase effectiveness of restoration

  • Marine protected areas: ban destructive fishing methods, establish no-take zones
  • Control and surveillance: marine patrol, community control of fishing practices
  • Sustainable economic activities, alternative to destructive fishing: sustainable coral aquaculture for aquarium industry, development of micro-farms / fisheries, eco-tourism (snorkelling, diving, etc.)

 

Community approach to empower communities in managing their reef

  • Participative / collaborative approach: local communities are at the core of the conservation project (villagers, fishermen, national park, associations and the general public)
  • Activities management and implementation by local organizations: artificial structures construction, damaged coral collection, growth in coral nurseries, coral aquaculture, control and patrolljng, eco-tourism and scuba-diving
  • Empowerment of communities on the knowledge and sustainable management of their natural resources

lgotype reformuler

This project was launched thanks to the support and commitment of Eau Thermale Avène's team.

CORAL REEFS RESTORATION PROJECTS DEVELOPED BY PUR PROJET